The Spirit of the LORD in Isaiah: Apostolic Pneumatology

Isaiah scroll from Qumran library

I have finished examining the six references to “the Spirit of the LORD” in Isaiah. Of these six, three are prophecies of the coming Messiah.

I will next examine the references to “the Spirit of the LORD” in Ezekiel and Micah and the one reference to “the Spirit of God” in Ezekiel.

The books we are studying now are all included in the Latter Prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Jeremiah is part of this section, but the only time the word “spirit” appears in Jeremiah is in a reference to the “spirit of the kings of the Medes” (Jeremiah 51:11).

By the way,  the scroll above is “[t]he earliest known complete scroll of the Book of Isaiah found among the library of the Qumran community.” It is included in the Media Resources of Logos Bible Software, which I recommend.

The Spirit of the LORD in I and II Kings: Apostolic Pneumatology

Elisha Employ's Elijah's Mantle

There are three references to the Spirit of the LORD in I and II Kings. They involve Obadiah, the manager of Ahab’s house, a false prophet named Zedekiah, and the sons of the prophets.

Since Zedekiah was a false prophet, the only thing we learn from him is that he understood that the Spirit of the Lord spoke to true prophets. He claimed, falsely, that this had been the case when he prophesied military victory for the king of Israel.

Obadiah feared the Lord, and his reference to the Spirit of the Lord shows that he believed it possible that the Spirit could carry a person from one place to another, as happened in the New Testament era in the case of the evangelist Philip. (See Acts 8:39-40.) The sons of the prophets also believed the Spirit of the Lord could transport a person.

Now I turn my attention to the forty-one references to the Spirit in the Latter Prophets, which include Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve [Hosea – Malachi]. Keep in mind that I am conducting this study by following the order of the books  in the Hebrew Scriptures.